The Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate jointly appoint the CBO Director, after considering recommendations from the two budget committees. Directors are appointed for four-year terms, and they may be reappointed to the position; in addition, a director serving at the expiration of a term may continue to serve until his or her successor is appointed. The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that CBO’s director is to be chosen without regard to political affiliation.
The rest of CBO’s staff, including the Deputy Director, are appointed by the Director. CBO directors have established a firm tradition of retaining staff from their predecessors. Directors appoint all CBO employees solely on the basis of professional competence, without regard to political affiliation.
Doug Elmendorf is CBO’s current Director. He was initially appointed on January 22, 2009, to complete the previous four-year term of office. He was later reappointed to serve through January 3, 2015. CBO’s Directors and their terms of office are as follows:
|Douglas W. Elmendorf||January 22, 2009 —|
|Peter R. Orszag||January 18, 2007 — November 25, 2008|
|Douglas Holtz-Eakin||February 5, 2003 — December 29, 2005|
|Dan L. Crippen||February 3, 1999 — January 3, 2003|
|June E. O'Neill||March 1, 1995 — January 29, 1999|
|Robert D. Reischauer||March 6, 1989 — February 28, 1995|
|Rudolph G. Penner||September 1, 1983 — April 28, 1987|
|Alice M. Rivlin||February 24, 1975 — August 31, 1983|
During gaps between directors, the agency has been led by acting directors. CBO’s Acting Directors have been Edward M. Gramlich, James L. Blum, Barry Anderson, Donald B. Marron, and Robert A. Sunshine.
CBO is organized into the Office of the Director and eight divisions: the Budget Analysis Division; the Financial Analysis Division; the Health, Retirement, and Long-Term Analysis Division; the Macroeconomic Analysis Division; the Management, Business, and Information Services Division; the Microeconomic Studies Division; the National Security Division; and the Tax Analysis Division.
However, CBO’s collegial work environment and flat organizational structure foster collaboration and teamwork across divisions (and within divisions). For example, the analytic reports produced by analysts in several divisions rely on the economic projections prepared by the Macroeconomic Analysis Division and on the cost estimates and budget projections prepared by the Budget Analysis and Tax Analysis Divisions. Similarly, the budget projections and cost estimates prepared by the Budget Analysis and Tax Analysis Divisions draw on models and analyses produced by other divisions.
CBO’s staff numbers about 235. Most of those people are economists or public policy analysts with advanced degrees, but the agency also employs lawyers, information technology specialists, editors, and people with other areas of expertise that contribute to the agency’s mission. Biographies of CBO’s senior managers are presented on our staffing page.
- general information