CBO is organized into the Office of the Director and eight divisions: the Budget Analysis Division; the Financial Analysis Division; the Health, Retirement, and Long-Term Analysis Division; the Macroeconomic Analysis Division; the Management, Business, and Information Services Division; the Microeconomic Studies Division; the National Security Division; and the Tax Analysis Division.
However, CBO's collegial work environment and flat organizational structure foster collaboration and teamwork across divisions (and within divisions). For example, the analytic reports produced by analysts in several divisions rely on the economic projections prepared by the Macroeconomic Analysis Division and on the cost estimates and budget projections prepared by the Budget Analysis and Tax Analysis Divisions. Similarly, the budget projections and cost estimates prepared by the Budget Analysis and Tax Analysis Divisions draw on models and analyses produced by other divisions.
CBO's staff numbers about 220. Most of those people are economists or public policy analysts with advanced degrees, but the agency also employs lawyers, information technology specialists, editors, and people with other areas of expertise that contribute to the agency’s mission.
The Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate jointly appoint the CBO Director, after considering recommendations from the two budget committees. Directors are appointed for four-year terms, and they may be reappointed to the position; in addition, a director serving at the expiration of a term may continue to serve until his or her successor is appointed. The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that CBO's Director is to be chosen without regard to political affiliation. CBO has had eight directors and several acting directors.
The rest of CBO's staff, including the Deputy Director, are appointed by the Director. CBO directors have established a firm tradition of retaining staff from their predecessors. Directors appoint all CBO employees solely on the basis of professional competence, without regard to political affiliation.
In addition to the Director and Deputy Director, the Office of the Director is also home to the Associate Director for Economic Analysis, who contributes to all aspects of the agency's analytic work; the Associate Director for Legislative Affairs, who serves as CBO’s central liaison with the Congress; the Associate Director for Communications and the members of the Office of Communications, who are responsible for all of the public affairs activities of CBO, including relations with the media and with the public; and the Office of the General Counsel, which performs the agency's legal work and acquisitions.
Douglas W. Elmendorf is the eighth Director of the Congressional Budget Office. He was initially appointed on January 22, 2009, to complete the previous four-year term of office; he was later reappointed to serve through January 3, 2015.
Before he came to CBO, Doug Elmendorf was a senior fellow and the Edward M. Bernstein Scholar in the Economic Studies program at the Brookings Institution. He was previously an assistant professor at Harvard University, a principal analyst at the Congressional Budget Office, a senior economist at the White House’s Council of Economic Advisers, a deputy assistant secretary for economic policy at the Treasury Department, and an assistant director of the Division of Research and Statistics at the Federal Reserve Board. In those positions, he worked on budget policy, Social Security, Medicare, health care issues, financial markets, macroeconomic analysis and forecasting, and other topics. He earned his Ph.D. and A.M. in economics from Harvard University, where he was a National Science Foundation graduate fellow, and his A.B. summa cum laude from Princeton University. (Download his vita)
Robert A. Sunshine is CBO’s Deputy Director, a post he assumed in 2007. Before then, he was the Assistant Director for Budget Analysis for eight years. In that capacity, he oversaw much of the work of the agency. He supervised the preparation of cost estimates and intergovernmental mandate statements (which identify the costs of federal mandates on state, local, or tribal governments) for legislation being considered by the Congress. He managed the preparation of CBO’s multiyear projections of federal spending that constitute the “baseline” for the Congressional budget process; the agency’s annual analysis of the President’s budget; and its ongoing estimates of spending for the Congress’s budget scorekeeping system. He also coordinated the preparation of CBO’s Monthly Budget Review. In 2003, he received the James L. Blum Award for exceptional and distinguished accomplishment and leadership in public budgeting from the American Association for Budget and Program Analysis.
Bob Sunshine has been with CBO almost from its inception. From 1995 to 1999, he was the Deputy Assistant Director of the Budget Analysis Division. From 1978 to 1994, he served as Chief of the Natural and Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit in that division. For the two years before that, he was a principal analyst in the Budget Analysis Division, covering transportation issues. Before coming to CBO, he was a senior associate with Simat, Helliesen and Eichner, Inc., a transportation consulting firm.
Jeffrey Kling is an economist who joined CBO in July 2009. He has conducted research on public housing, incarceration, retirement security, Medicare’s prescription drug program, unemployment insurance, and other aspects of public policy in the United States. His work has been published in the American Economic Review, Econometrica, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, and elsewhere. Previously, he was the Joseph A. Pechman Senior Fellow and Deputy Director of Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution. From 1998 to 2005, he was a faculty member at Princeton University. In earlier government service, he was a special assistant to the Secretary of Labor and an assistant to the chief economist at the World Bank. He earned his Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his A.B. from Harvard University.
Edward “Sandy” Davis has been employed with CBO since 1996 and prior to his 2003 appointment to his current role was a senior analyst specializing in Congressional budget procedures and practices. He joined CBO after serving for many years as an analyst with the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress, first as an analyst specializing in American national government and then as a senior budget process specialist. He holds a B.A. in political science from Randolph-Macon College.
Deborah Kilroe joined CBO as the head of its communications office in April 2011. Before coming to the agency, she spent five years working in communications in the Federal Reserve System. Most recently, she was a vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, where she oversaw media relations and public affairs, and she previously worked in the public affairs office at the Federal Reserve Board in Washington, D.C. Before joining the Federal Reserve Board, Deborah Kilroe spent 15 years as a journalist, during which time she specialized in covering economics, monetary policy, financial markets, and politics. Her journalism career began at States News Service in Washington, covering the Congress and the Administration. She went on to be a staff writer at The Record, in New Jersey, focusing on municipal government. She later became an economics reporter at Bridge News in New York and at Dow Jones Newswires in Washington. She also worked as a senior producer for AOLTV and has been an on-air contributor to CNBC, MSNBC, and PBS’s Nightly Business Report. She holds a B.S. in journalism from the University of Colorado at Boulder.
Mark Hadley became CBO’s General Counsel in September 2008, advancing from the post of Deputy General Counsel, which he had held since 2006. Before that, he worked for an international law firm, where he represented issuers, commercial banks, and investment banks in the structuring of financial products, management of assets, and negotiation of financial transactions. Prior to his legal career, he was an associate analyst at CBO for five years—during which time his areas of responsibility were air transportation, deposit insurance, and credit reform—and a financial specialist with the Small Business Administration. Mark Hadley holds a J.D. from George Washington University; an M.P.P. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison; and a B.A. from Truman State University, in Kirksville, Missouri.
The Budget Analysis Division produces baseline projections of federal spending, formal cost estimates for virtually every bill approved by Congressional committees, and informal cost estimates for thousands of proposals that committees are considering. The formal cost estimates include estimates not only of the effects of the legislation on the federal budget but also assessments of the costs imposed on state, local, and tribal governments.
The division also makes key contributions to many of CBO’s analytic reports and works on:
Peter H. Fontaine is the Assistant Director for Budget Analysis at CBO. He guides and contributes to analyses that are critical to the legislative processes of the Congress—including projections of federal spending for the current year and the next 10 years under current laws and policies for about 1,000 budget accounts covering all federal activities; tallies of federal spending throughout the year; and about 600 formal cost estimates (most of which include estimates of the cost of federal mandates on state, local, and tribal governments) each year for legislation approved by committees and thousands of informal estimates each year for legislation under consideration. Pete Fontaine has worked at CBO since 1985. From 1985 through 1994, he served as an analyst in the Natural and Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit (within the division that he now heads), where he primarily handled energy and financial credit issues. He managed that unit from 1995 to late 1999, when he became the division’s deputy assistant director. He served in that role for about eight years and has been CBO’s Assistant Director for Budget Analysis since mid-2007.
Before coming to CBO, Pete Fontaine worked for two Washington-area management-consulting firms from 1978 to 1985, conducting analytical work for a variety of government and private-sector clients. He graduated from the College of the Holy Cross with a B.A. in mathematics. He received a master’s degree in mathematical sciences from the Johns Hopkins University and completed postgraduate studies in operations research and energy economics at the George Washington University.
Theresa Gullo is one of two deputies in the Budget Analysis Division. In that capacity, she works with BAD’s Assistant Director to manage the division’s work in the areas of natural resources, transportation and infrastructure, agriculture, energy, defense, international affairs, veterans’ affairs, housing, and financial institutions. Ms. Gullo has worked at CBO since 1985. She served as an analyst in the Natural and Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit, where she handled land and water management issues. She also helped create and managed the State and Local Government Cost Estimates Unit until 2007, when she became the division’s Deputy Assistant Director.
Before coming to CBO, Ms. Gullo worked at the Urban Institute, conducting research on a variety of public finance issues, including infrastructure investment and state implementation of federal block grants. She graduated from Scripps College with a bachelor’s degree in American studies and received a master’s degree in public policy from the University of California at Berkeley.
Holly Harvey is one of two deputies in the Budget Analysis Division. In that capacity, she works with BAD’s Assistant Director to manage the division’s work in the areas of health, income security, and education. Ms. Harvey rejoined CBO in 2007, having been an analyst in the division from 1986 to 1991. Before becoming Deputy Assistant Director, Ms. Harvey worked in the division’s Health Systems and Medicare Cost Estimates Unit, where she focused on issues in the health care delivery system. In her earlier spell at CBO, she was responsible for developing baseline projections and cost estimates of legislative proposals related to Medicare payments for physicians’ services.
In between her times at CBO, Ms. Harvey held positions at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services; and in the Domestic Social Policy Division at the Congressional Research Service. She graduated from the University of California at San Diego with a bachelor’s degree in political science and received a master’s degree in public policy from the University of California at Berkeley.
The policy analyses of the Financial Analysis Division focus on the financial commitments of the federal government, including federal credit and insurance programs and government-sponsored enterprises. The division also provides support throughout CBO for financial valuation, financial modeling, risk assessment, financial accounting, and projections of financial variables.
Damien Moore became CBO’s Assistant Director for Financial Analysis in March 2012, having been the division’s deputy assistant director since its inception in 2010. Starting as an analyst at CBO in 2005, he began working with colleagues in the Budget Analysis Division, Macroeconomic Analysis Division, and elsewhere in the agency on a range of federal financial issues, including estimates of the cost of federal credit and insurance programs and analysis of federal actions taken in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Damien Moore has written on CBO’s budgetary treatment of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and on policy options for federal student loans and the housing and mortgage markets. He has made major contributions to the agency’s analysis of a wide range of federal financial activities, playing a key role in formulating and applying analytical techniques that have been used in baseline projections, cost estimates, and reports. Before joining CBO, Damien Moore was a lecturer at the University of Sydney Business School. He also worked as a consulting economist for the Australian firm Access Economics. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Northwestern University and bachelor’s degrees in economics and commerce from the Australian National University.
The Health, Retirement, and Long-Term Analysis Division analyzes federal programs and policies concerning health care and retirement, including Medicare, Medicaid, subsidies to be provided through health insurance exchanges, and Social Security. The division works on some of the most hotly debated policy issues before the Congress, producing reports on a range of policy issues and options and providing detailed analyses of proposed legislation. The division is also responsible for CBO’s long-term budget projections and collaborates on analyses of the long-term effects of proposed legislation.
Linda Bilheimer rejoined CBO in June 2011. Earlier, from 1991 to 1999, she had been an analyst in and then a deputy assistant director of the division that she now leads. Between her times at CBO, she was a senior program officer with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and, most recently, the Associate Director for Analysis and Epidemiology at the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where she oversaw a group of about 70 epidemiologists, statisticians, demographers, physicians, and programmers. Before coming to CBO the first time, Linda Bilheimer was an assistant professor of biometry at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; the Director of the Division of Health Statistics and Epidemiology at the Arkansas Department of Health; and a senior research at Mathematica Policy Research. She earned her M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University and her B.A. in economics and economic statistics from the University of York, in the United Kingdom.
Jessica Banthin came to CBO in June 2011, arriving as a senior advisor on health care analyses. She was promoted two years later to the position of deputy assistant director. During her time at CBO, she has written and managed several reports and cost estimates related to the Affordable Care Act. She directs the development and application of the agency’s Health Insurance Simulation model as well as other models used to support estimates of how changes in policy would affect health insurance coverage and the federal budget.
Before joining CBO, Dr. Banthin worked for many years at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), where she directed the Division of Modeling and Simulation. At AHRQ, she helped design and analyze the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which yields nationally representative data on health care expenditures, premiums, and more.
Her research has spanned a range of health care issues, including trends in out-of-pocket spending, employment-based coverage, eligibility for and enrollment in Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program, the “crowding out” of private insurance by public programs, premiums in the individual market, prescription drug expenditures, and the impact of policy reforms on costs overall, access to care, and families’ out-of-pocket expenses. Dr. Banthin received her Ph.D. in economics from the University of Maryland and her A.B. from Harvard University.
James Baumgardner joined CBO in 1994. Throughout his career at CBO, he has been involved in much of the agency’s work on health care policy. Among the CBO reports and analyses that he has written are Medicare and Graduate Medical Education (September 1995), Proposals to Subsidize Health Insurance for the Unemployed (January 1998), and an examination of a proposal for displaced workers ages 55 to 61 to buy into Medicare (March 1998). Among the reports that he has helped direct and guide are Issues in Designing a Prescription Drug Benefit for Medicare (October 2002), Key Issues in Analyzing Major Health Insurance Proposals (December 2008), Budget Options Volume I: Health Care (December 2008), and Raising the Excise Tax on Cigarettes: Effects on Health and the Federal Budget (June 2012). Before joining CBO, Dr. Baumgardner was an economics professor at Duke University. He earned his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago.
The Macroeconomic Analysis Division generates CBO’s economic projections, which underlie the agency’s budget projections. The division also studies major developments in the economy, including trends in labor force participation and productivity, international trade and capital flows, and the recent housing boom and bust, financial crisis, recession, and weak recovery. In addition, the division analyzes the short-term and longer-term macroeconomic impact of proposed changes in tax and spending policies.
Wendy Edelberg joined CBO in March 2011. Just before arriving at the agency, she was the executive director of the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, which released its report on the causes of the recent financial crisis in January 2011. Previously, she worked on issues related to macroeconomics, housing, and consumer spending at the President’s Council of Economic Advisers during two administrations. Before that, she worked on those same issues at the Federal Reserve Board. She received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago, an M.B.A. from the University of Chicago, and a B.A. from Columbia University.
The Management, Business, and Information Services Division provides administrative and support services for CBO. The division’s work includes managing the agency’s human resources, financial systems, information and technology resources, library services, and facilities. Additionally, the division is responsible for editing and producing CBO’s publications and for coordinating with other Congressional support agencies.
Joseph E. Evans, Jr., became CBO’s Chief Administrative Officer in June 2013, having advanced from his position as the agency’s Chief Financial Officer, which he had held since 2004. As the head of CBO’s division providing all support services for the agency, Joe Evans has broad responsibilities —for human resources, financial systems, information and technology resources, library services, and facilities, as well as for the editing and production of CBO’s publications. During his time as Chief Financial Officer, he handled all aspects of planning and implementing the agency’s budgetary and financial activities.
Before he came to CBO, Joe Evans held increasingly responsible positions at the Defense Intelligence Agency. As the Deputy Chief Financial Executive/Comptroller, he provided fiscal oversight and management of the agency’s multibillion-dollar budget and worked in various ways to improve the agency’s management of resources. Before that, in a number of different roles over the course of about 15 years, he presided over the planning of and systems for the agency’s budget and finances, providing advice and analyses to align resources with needs and priorities. A certified government financial manager, he holds two bachelor’s degrees from the University of Maryland, in business management and accounting, and a master’s degree from the same institution, in management, with a specialization in procurement contracts.
Stephanie Ruiz began her career at CBO in 1999. She started as a human resources specialist and was promoted in 2001 to lead the Human Resources Office. Since 2009, she has held the dual role of Human Resources Director and Deputy Chief Administrative Officer. Before joining CBO, she managed various human resource functions at the Samson Companies, a domestic oil and gas company with international operations, headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Ms. Ruiz has also held various roles in academic administration at the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University and at the University of Tulsa. Ms. Ruiz received her bachelor’s degree from the University of Tulsa in political science and Spanish and is a certified Professional in Human Resources.
The Microeconomic Studies Division analyzes a broad range of programs and policies with significant implications for the federal budget and the economy. Those issues include federal programs related to education and income security, federal investments in physical infrastructure such as highways, and federal policy related to energy, natural resources, climate, and the environment. The division also estimates the costs of mandates imposed on the private sector by federal legislation.
Joseph Kile came to CBO in 2005, following 16 years in various positions at the Government Accountability Office (GAO). While at that agency, he led the Center for Economics, within the Applied Research and Methods Team—overseeing a group of economists that provided analyses and reviews of a broad range of issues. Before that, he was a senior economist and an assistant director within GAO’s Office of the Chief Economist. His analyses focused, in particular, on the issues of transportation (especially aviation financing, airline competition, and air service to small communities), energy, natural resources and the environment, and the pharmaceutical industry. Joseph Kile received a master’s degree and a doctorate in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His bachelor’s degree in economics and mathematics is from St. Olaf College, in Northfield, Minnesota.
Chad Shirley joined CBO in 2010 as an analyst in the Microeconomic Studies Division and became Deputy Assistant Director of the division the next year. Before coming to the agency, he worked in economic consulting examining questions related to intellectual property and industry structure and performance. Before that, as an economist at the RAND Corporation, he focused on issues in transportation policy and government acquisitions and contracting. Dr. Shirley received his doctorate in economics from the University of California, Berkeley, and graduated with a bachelor's degree in economics from Stanford University.
The National Security Division analyzes policy issues related to the defense budget, veterans’ affairs, and homeland security. Each year, the division prepares a long-term projection of the costs of the Defense Department’s planned policies. The division regularly examines alternative ways of achieving certain military capabilities, the costs of providing health care to military personnel and veterans, and the pros and cons of possible changes in military compensation and veterans’ benefits.
David E. Mosher returned to CBO in June 2010, resuming with the agency after having been a principal analyst at CBO from 1990 to 2000 in the division that he now leads. In the decade in between his time at CBO, he was a senior policy analyst at RAND. During his time at RAND, David Mosher was also an adjunct professor at Georgetown University and served as the director of the American Physical Society’s Study Group on Boost-Phase Intercept Systems for National Missile Defense. His research focused on environmental issues for the Army in contingency operations; ballistic missile defense; military use of space; nuclear proliferation; nuclear weapons; the role of the military and the National Guard in homeland security; special forces aviation; Army strategy; and terrorists’ acquisition and use of nuclear, biological, chemical, and radiological weapons. David Mosher holds an M.P.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, and a B.A. in physics from Grinnell College, in Grinnell, Iowa.
Matthew S. Goldberg has been Deputy Assistant Director for the National Security Division of CBO since 2004. He brought to the agency more than 20 years' experience conducting and leading analyses of defense issues. He was a research team leader at CNA Corporation, an assistant division director at the Institute for Defense Analyses, and a research analyst at RAND and at CNA. His publications have appeared in such peer-reviewed journals as Review of Economics and Statistics, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Management Science, and Journal of Econometrics. In 2003, he published a coauthored monograph, Statistical Methods for Learning Curves and Cost Analysis, which was awarded the Koopman Prize by INFORMS as the best military application of operations research in that year. At CBO, he manages a portfolio of research on the military operations and maintenance account, the compensation and health care benefits of military personnel, veterans' benefits, and related defense budget issues. He holds a bachelor's degree in economics and mathematics from Queens College, City University of New York, and a doctorate in economics from the University of Chicago.
The Tax Analysis Division projects future federal revenues (from individual income taxes, corporate income taxes, payroll taxes, and other sources) using economic models and microsimulation techniques. The division also analyzes the distribution of federal taxes and spending, and it examines how possible changes in tax law would affect the behavior of taxpayers and the overall economy.
David Weiner joined CBO in 1991. He has over 25 years' experience with revenue forecasting, modeling, and analysis of tax policy issues. He began his career at CBO as an analyst of individual income taxes, becoming a unit chief in the Tax Analysis Division in 2002, overseeing work on the agency's tax models. He has served as Deputy Director of the division since 2009. Before coming to CBO, he worked as a financial economist at the Treasury Department's Office of Tax Policy and as an evaluator at the Government Accountability Office. David Weiner has an M.A. in public policy and a B.A. in economics and political science from the University of Michigan.
This position is currently vacant.
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