October 6, 2008
CBO released a brief today on climate-change policy and CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles (for the PDF, click here).
Discussions about addressing climate change (e.g., through a cap-and-trade program or a carbon tax) often focus on the transportation sector. The brief argues, however, that most of the reduction in CO2 emissions would occur in other sectors (e.g., the electricity sector) and that the effects on vehicle emissions would be modest, especially in the shorter run.
To be sure, a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax would raise the price of gasoline, encouraging consumers to drive less and to buy more fuel-efficient cars-- but the magnitude of these effects would be relatively small. For example, CBO has estimated that a price of $28 per metric ton of CO2 in 2012 would lead to a reduction of about 10 percent in total U.S. emissions compared with a no-action scenario. Vehicle emissions, though, would remain relatively constant in the short run, and even over time they would decline only by around 2.5 percent -- much less than the 10 percent reduction in overall emissions.
Several factors account for the relatively small influence that a price on CO2 emissions would have on passenger vehicles and driving behavior. First, a CO2 price of $28 per metric ton would raise gas prices by about 25 cents per gallon, far less of an increase than consumers have recently born with little behavioral result. (Between 2003 and 2007, gas prices increased from $1.50 to more than $3.00 per gallon. Vehicle miles driven, driving speeds, and the purchase of larger vehicles have all responded only modestly despite the dramatic increase in prices.) An increase in gas prices of 25 cents or so per gallon is unlikely to generate massive changes in driving behavior.
In addition, recent changes to corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards will require substantial gains in fuel economy over the next dozen years. Especially over the longer term, gas price increases are not likely to have a large effect beyond what CAFE standards will require.
Finally, cultural, historic, and geographic considerations drive the extent to which Americans have become dependent on automobile travel, and their choices tend towards larger and more powerful (and less fuel efficient) automobiles. While dramatic increases in gasoline prices (or shifts in cultural norms) might eventually influence these considerations, the magnitude of gas price increases under most legislation under consideration would likely have little effect.
The brief was written by David Austin of our Microeconomic Studies Division.