The number and cost of refundable tax credits have grown considerably since 1975. Federal costs (in 2013 dollars) peaked at $238 billion in 2008, but costs will fall to $149 billion in 2013 before reaching $213 billion in 2021.
CBO analyzes pending federal legislation and enacted laws to identify private-sector mandates, which are enforceable duties imposed on entities in the private sector. About 12% of the laws enacted between 2001 and 2011 impose such mandates.
CBO reports to the Congress on: programs funded for the current fiscal year for which authorizations of appropriations have expired; and programs for which authorizations of appropriations will expire during the current fiscal year.