The federal government provides financial support for state and local governments, imposes restrictions on the activities of those governments, and offers incentives for those governments to undertake or not undertake certain activities. The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) ensures that, during the legislative process, the Congress receives information about restrictions on state, local, and tribal governments (and on private entities) known as federal mandates. Specifically, CBO produces mandate statements for each committee-approved bill.
State and Local Governments
Dec 2013 - In 2012, the federal government spent $531 billion on investment—for physical capital; research and development; and education and training—which represented 15 percent of federal spending and 3 percent of GDP.
Mar 2013 - Of the 428 bills CBO reviewed in 2012, 68 contained intergovernmental mandates and 80 contained private-sector mandates. Of the 202 public laws enacted, 16 contain intergovernmental mandates and 23 contain private-sector mandates.
Mar 2013 - In 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments, accounting for 17 percent of federal outlays and a quarter of spending by states and localities. Nearly half of that amount was for Medicaid.
Estimates for the Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act Updated for the Recent Supreme Court Decision
Jul 2012 - Updated estimates of the budgetary effects of the health insurance coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) taking into account the Supreme Court decision that essentially made the expansion of the Medicaid program under the ACA a state option.
Apr 2012 - Testimony by Frank Sammartino, Assistant Director for Tax Analysis, before the Committee on Finance, United States Senate
May 2011 - CBO discusses two approaches to calculating the present value of a plans liabilities.
Dec 2010 - This brief describes the economic conditions and budgeting practices that can lead to significant budgetary challenges--often termed fiscal stress--at the local level. The brief also reviews the options available to local governments, state governments, and the federal government for addressing such financial difficulty. Last, the brief examines two options that local governments very rarely use: defaulting on their debt or filing for bankruptcy.
- reportMarch 5, 2014
- cost estimateFebruary 12, 2014
- presentationJanuary 12, 2014
- reportDecember 18, 2013
- cost estimateDecember 18, 2013
- presentationDecember 4, 2013
- cost estimateNovember 6, 2013
- cost estimateOctober 30, 2013
Use this menu to filter CBO's publications by topic. From January 2011 forward, all the agency's products are categorized by topic. Cost estimates released prior to the 112th Congress are not categorized by topic.