The share of people living in the United States in families with income below the official federal poverty threshold has fluctuated between about 11 percent and about 15 percent over the past several decades. CBO analyzes a wide variety of federal programs that aim to reduce poverty, alleviate some of poverty's adverse consequences, and enhance income security.
Poverty and Income Security
Feb 2014 - Raising the minimum wage would increase family income for many low-wage workers, moving some of them out of poverty. But some jobs for low-wage workers would probably be eliminated and the income of those workers would fall substantially.
Dec 2013 - Spending on the Social Security program will exceed its dedicated tax revenues, on average, by about 12 percent over the next decade, CBO projects. The gap will grow larger in the 2020s and will exceed 30 percent of revenues by 2030.
Nov 2013 - CBO analyzes the distribution of most federal spending—including transfers like Social Security benefits—and almost all federal revenues among U.S. households in 2006. Results are provided by type of household and by income group.
Nov 2013 - CBO periodically issues a compendium of options—this installment presents more than 100—to inform lawmakers about the budgetary effects of ways to reduce the deficit.
Mar 2013 - In 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments, accounting for 17 percent of federal outlays and a quarter of spending by states and localities. Nearly half of that amount was for Medicaid.
Feb 2013 - During the past 40 years, federal spending for major means-tested programs and tax credits for low-income households more than tripled as a share of gross domestic product. In 2012, such spending totaled $588 billion.
Jan 2013 - The number and cost of refundable tax credits have grown considerably since 1975. Federal costs (in 2013 dollars) peaked at $238 billion in 2008, but costs will fall to $149 billion in 2013, CBO projects, before reaching $213 billion in 2021.
Dec 2012 - In fiscal year 2013, more than 8 million people will receive Supplemental Security Income payments at a federal cost of about $50 billion.
Apr 2012 - One in seven U.S. residents received benefits through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called Food Stamps) in 2011, at a total cost of $78 billion. Spending on SNAP benefits more than doubled between 2007 and 2011.
Nov 2012 - Between 2007 and 2010, unemployment benefits expanded nearly five-fold owing to high unemployment due to the weak economy, and decisions by policymakers to increase the number of weeks for which eligible unemployed workers could receive benefits.
Nov 2012 - Effective marginal tax rates among low- and moderate-income workers are about 30 percent, on average, with about one-third of that rate stemming from the federal income tax, more than a third from federal payroll taxes, and the remainder from state income taxes and the phaseout of SNAP benefits.
Letter to the Honorable John Boehner providing an estimate for H.R. 6079, the Repeal of Obamacare Act
Jul 2012 - CBO and the JCT have estimated the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 6079, as passed by the House of Representatives on July 11, 2012.
Estimates for the Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act Updated for the Recent Supreme Court Decision
Jul 2012 - Updated estimates of the budgetary effects of the health insurance coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) taking into account the Supreme Court decision that essentially made the expansion of the Medicaid program under the ACA a state option.
Jul 2012 - The Disability Insurance program provided benefits to 8.3 million disabled workers in 2011. By 2022, CBO projects, the program will provide benefits to over 10 million disabled workers and total spending on benefits to those workers will exceed $190 billion.
Jan 2012 - This issue brief reviews how ages of eligibility affect beneficiaries under current law and how delaying eligibility would affect beneficiaries, the federal budget, and the economy.
- data or technical informationApril 17, 2014
- data or technical informationApril 17, 2014
Unemployment Compensation and Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers, CBO's Reestimate of the President's FY 2015 Budgetdata or technical informationApril 17, 2014
- cost estimateMarch 25, 2014
- cost estimateMarch 13, 2014
- reportMarch 12, 2014
- cost estimateMarch 7, 2014
- cost estimateFebruary 25, 2014
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